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chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 06:53 AM
In the Mayan culture, hanging was the only method of suicide deemed appropriate and anyone who committed suicide this way was guaranteed a place in the afterlife. They even had a goddess of the noose and the gallows named Ixtab (“Rope Woman”).

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 06:54 AM
Hanging is the leading method of suicide worldwide. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 06:55 AM
Although women attempt suicide about three times more often than men, men complete suicide about three times more often than women. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 06:57 AM
Four out of five people who commit suicide have attempted to kill themselves at least once previously. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 06:57 AM
Suicide is the leading cause of death for people with schizophrenia. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 06:58 AM
A number of suicidologists have criticized news coverage of suicides, citing that reading about suicide victims in the news often triggers copycat or “contagion” suicides. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 06:59 AM
During the Middle Ages, suicide was often equated with murder and even diabolical possession in various parts of Europe. Three common penalties existed: confiscation of property, degradation of corpse, and refusal of burial in consecrated grounds. These views persisted throughout the eighteenth century.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 06:59 AM
Although Nero (A.D. 37-68) insisted he wanted to commit suicide honorably, he actually had himself killed by an attendant. During his lifetime, he had caused several suicides, including that of his teacher Seneca, the poet Lucan, and Petroniu, who is thought to be the author of Satyricon. These were all compulsory suicides in lieu of execution.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:00 AM
Levels of a brain transmitter called serotonin is considered a possible predictor of suicide. Some researchers found that people with low levels of serotonin are six to 10 more times likely to commit suicide than are people with normal levels.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:01 AM
Suicide rates tend to reflect economic conditions. In the United States, for example, suicide rates declined during the prosperous years after WWI and WWII, but rose during the Great Depression. Ironically, suicide rates tend to decrease during times of war.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:02 AM
Oregon and Washington are the only states that specifically allow physician-assisted suicide under certain strict guidelines. A few of these guidelines include being diagnosed with a terminal illness that will lead to death in six months, making two oral requests and one written request for assistance separated by 15 days, and persuading two physicians that the patient is sincere and is not influenced by depression.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:02 AM
Beliefs about suicide varied in ancient Greece. The Stoics and Epicureans, for example, considered that one’s destiny was a personal choice. Cato, Pliny, and Seneca all thought the choice of suicide was acceptable. On the other hand, Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Virgil, Ovid, and Cicero opposed suicide.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:03 AM
Some scholars suggest that there are national preferences for modes of suicide. For example, the Russians prefer hanging, the English and Irish prefer poison, the Italians prefer firearms, and the Americans prefer firearms, poisons, and gas. Proclivities for certain methods tend to travel with immigrants wherever they go.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:04 AM
In Rome, razors, scalpels, and daggers were more common methods of suicide than hanging (which was seen as unclean and shameful), jumping, and poisoning or other drugs. Less often, but not rarely, the Romans starved themselves to death by refusing to eat or set themselves on fire (immolation).

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:05 AM
Martin Luther, Puritan religious leaders, and philosophers such as John Locke, Rousseau, and Kierkegaard were adamantly opposed to suicide. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:05 AM
In America, the most common suicide method for both men and women is firearms, accounting for 60% of all suicides. For women, the next most common method is ingesting solid and liquid poison or pills. The next most common method for men is hanging/strangling/suffocation.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:06 AM
Though there is need to practice caution in the comparison of religion and suicide, studies suggest that in the United States, Catholics appear to have suicide rates higher than Jews but lower than Protestants. Generally speaking, higher suicide rates are found among the multi-denominational, loosely federated Protestants.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:07 AM
Several U.S. state and national studies suggest that suicide attempts among gay, lesbian, and bisexual high school students are higher than their heterosexual peers. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:08 AM
Experts believe that early exposure to child abuse may disrupt the proper development of communication pathways within the brain and, consequently, abuse victims are more likely than their peers to commit suicide.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:09 AM
There is increasing evidence that individuals with a family history of suicide are more vulnerable to becoming victims of suicide themselves. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:10 AM
While some studies seem to suggest a link between the use of Prozac and suicide rates, the makers of Prozac minimize a correlation. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:11 AM
No suicides have been reported in the several small South Sea Islands and the Hindu Kush Mountains of India. Countries that rank unusually high include Hungry, Denmark, Finland, Austria, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and Japan. Countries on the low end include Philippines, Angola, Jamaica, Mexico, the Bahamas, Kuwait, Jordan, Kenya, and Egypt.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:12 AM
New and less stringent attitudes toward suicide emerged during the Renaissance as churchly taboos began to lose their power. For example, Shakespeare’s tragedies typically present suicide in sympathetic terms, as seen in the suicides of Hamlet, Othello, Lear, Romeo, Juliet, Brutus, Antony, and Cleopatra. Sixteenth-century essayist Michel de Montaigne argues that the right to die was a personal choice, and Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) justified suicide as a form of euthanasia in his Utopia.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:13 AM
A provocative 1982 book titled Suicide, mode d’emploi is both a how-to manual and a political manifesto encouraging readers to exercise their right to die. It contains information about those prescription drugs that ensure a “gentle death” along with how to calculate a lethal dose.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:14 AM
Famous literary suicides include Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary (Madame Bovary), Victor Hugo’s Inspector Javert (Les Miserable), Goethe’s Werther (The Sorrows of Young Werther), Ridley Scott’s Thelma and Louise (Thelma and Louise), and Leo Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina (Anna Karenina).

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:15 AM
Most European countries formally decriminalized suicide in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, although it remained a crime in England and Wales until 1961 and in Ireland until 1993.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:16 AM
Kamikaze (“divine wind”) pilots are an example of an altruistic suicide. More than 2,000 young Japanese died in this manner. The number of ships they sank is a matter of debate, with figures as low as 34 and as high as 70.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:17 AM
Attempted suicide was once considered a felony in Kentucky. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:18 AM
The first suicide note is thought to have been written by an Egyptian four thousand years ago. In his poems, he describes the pain of his existence and the attractions of death.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:20 AM
Russian poet Sergei Esenin (1895-1925) wrote an entire poem in his own blood that served as suicide note. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:21 AM
In a study of genuine suicide notes versus simulated ones, the genuine notes are much more specific about giving directives concerning property distribution and insurance policies and more concerned with the pain and suffering of others. They are more likely to express psychological pain and more likely to use “love” in their texts. The simulated notes give greater details about the motives of suicide, mention the act of suicide itself, and more often use euphemistic phrases for death and suicide.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:22 AM
Popular suicide locations include San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge, Japan’s Aokigahara Forest (“sea of trees” or “suicide forest”), and England’s Beachy Head. In all these places there are posted signs urging potential victims to seek help.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:24 AM
The jump from the Golden Gate Bridge is 250 feet. Trauma from the jump is dramatic and can cause ripped blood vessels, demolished central nervous systems, and a transected spinal cord. While a few have died from drowning and one from a shark attack, most die from the impact of the body on the water. Only 1% who jump survive.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:25 AM
The Eskimo, Norse, Samoan, and Crow Indian cultures accepted and encouraged “altruistic” suicide among the elderly and sick. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:26 AM
Roman gladiators would sometimes thrust wooden sticks or spears down their throats or force their heads into the spokes of moving carts so that they could choose their own time of death rather than another person’s imposed time and way of dying.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:27 AM
September 10 is World Suicide Prevention Day. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:28 AM
The top predictors for suicide are diagnosable mental condition, co-morbid substance abuse, loss of social support, and access to a firearm. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:29 AM
Children of parents who commit suicide are a higher risk to committee suicide later in life. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:30 AM
The first suicide recorded in the Bible was Abimelech, who lived in the twelfth century B.C. He was the son of Giddeon (Jerubbaal) and a concubine, and he attempted to kill his 70 half-brothers so he could be king. In his final battle, a woman dropped a millstone on his head, and he ordered his sword bearer to kill him so it wouldn’t be said he was killed by a woman

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:31 AM
Thirty-nine members of the Heaven’s Gate cult killed themselves in March 1997 in a mansion near San Diego. The victims were between 18 and 24 years old, drank a lethal mixture of Phenobarbital and vodka, and died over a three-day period. They believed their spirits would rendezvous with a UFO behind Comet Hale-Bopp.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:32 AM
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) writes about the Wood of the Suicides in Canto XIII of his The Divine Comedy. He writes that Minos sends a suicide victim’s soul to the Seventh Circle of Hell (below heretics and murders) where it falls into the ground, grows into a sapling, and then into a tree. Harpies feed on the tree, causing it great pain. After Judgment Day, the suicide victim’s soul will hang from the thorns of trees.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:33 AM
Divorced people are three times as likely to commit suicide as people who are married. Moreover, children of divorce are at a higher risk for committing suicide when they grow up. Divorced and separated men are two and a half times more likely to commit suicide than married men. Divorce, however, doesn’t seem to lead more women to commit suicide.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:35 AM
Druids or priests of the Celtic people believed that those who killed themselves to accompany their dead friends will live with them in the after life .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:37 AM
Wow



The last time someone jumped off the Empire State Building was in 2000, but there have been more than 30 suicides at the 1,250 foot skyscraper since it opened in 1941. Most people who jump never made it the street, but landed on one of the building’s setbacks.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:38 AM
The suicide rate for Alaskan Native Indians is twice that of the U.S. population, and in western Alaska, the Eskimo suicide rates are even higher. The most common method used is hanging.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:40 AM
Fiji Indians have the world’s highest female suicide rates. A major cause of the rise of suicides has been the erosion of social structures and values. Additionally, early Fiji Islanders forced the many wives of a tribal chieftain to kill themselves when he died. The women would actually compete to be the first to die, believing the first would become the chieftain’s favorite wife in the afterworld.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:41 AM
The odds that potentially suicidal adolescents will kill themselves double when a gun is kept in the home. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:42 AM
In the United States, Nevada consistently leads suicide rate statistics, with Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming variously falling within the top ten. Highest regional rates are generally those of the Rocky Mountain and West Coast areas, with the South showing the lowest rate, except for Florida.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:43 AM
Since the Golden Gate Bridge opened in 1937, more than 1,200 people have jumped to their deaths, making it the number one spot in the world for suicides. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:45 AM
Abel Griffiths was the last person who committed suicide in England to be dragged through the streets of London and buried at a crossroads. He was a 22-year-old law student and was buried in only his drawers, socks, and a sheet in June 1823. The usual tradition of driving a stake through the corpse was omitted. Crossroads represented the sign of the cross and the steady traffic over the grave was believed to help keep the person’s ghost down. Also, ancient sacrificial victims had been slain at crossroads.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:46 AM
The first scientific study of suicide was Le Suicide written by French sociologist Emile Durkheim (1858-1917). .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:53 AM
The M*A*S*H theme song is titled “Suicide is Painless” and contains the lyrics “. . . cause suicide is painless/It brings on many changes/And I can take it or leave it if I please.”

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:54 AM
The usual modern life insurance policy will pay for death by suicide provided that the death occurs two years or more after the initiation of the policy .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:55 AM
Between 10% and 35% of people who commit suicide leave behind a note. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:55 AM
Publius Cornelius Tacitus (c. A.D. 55-120) reports on the ancient practice of pinning down the body of suicide victims in bogs. The practice predates Christianity among Germanic tribes and was done to prevent the spirits of the dead from haunting or harming the living.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:56 AM
Monday appears to be the day on which most suicides occur. Saturday sees the fewest. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:57 AM
Some experts believe that 25% of drivers who die in auto accidents cause them subconsciously. “Autocides” are suicides disguised as automobile accidents. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:58 AM
Nearly 10% of fatal police shootings in the United States are a result of “suicide by cop.” .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:59 AM
Many more suicides are linked to psychiatric illness than to serious medical disorders such as Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis, or cancer. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 07:59 AM
Many Jews imprisoned at Treblinka, one of the most notorious World War II Nazi concentration camps, chose to kill themselves as an affirmation of the freedom to control their own destiny.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:00 AM
One suicide victim who committed suicide by jumping from the Golden Gate Bridge left behind a note saying: “I’m going to walk to the bridge. If one person smiles at me on the way, I will not jump.”

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:05 AM
Stress has been called “the silent killer” and can lead to heart disease, high blood pressure, chest pain, and an irregular heartbeat. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:06 AM
While it is a myth that stress can turn hair gray, stress can cause hair loss. In fact, telogen effluvium (hair loss) can begin up to three months after a stressful event. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:08 AM
In 2009, the top most stressful jobs were a surgeon, commercial airline pilot, photojournalist, advertising account executive, and real estate agent. The least stressful jobs were actuary, dietitian, astronomer, systems analyst, and software engineer.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:09 AM
The top three stressful cities in America are Chicago, Ilinois; Los Angeles, California; and New York, New York. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:09 AM
Stress alters the neurochemical makeup of the body, which can affect the maturation and release of the human egg. Stress can also cause the fallopian tubes and uterus to spasm, which can affect implantation. Stress in men can affect sperm count and motility and can cause erectile dysfunction. In fact, stress may account for 30% of all infertility problems.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:11 AM
Stress can make acne worse. Researchers say stress-related inflammation rather than a rise is sebum (the oily substance in skin) is to blame. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:11 AM
Laughing lowers stress hormones (like cortisol, epinephrine, and adrenaline) and strengthens the immune system by releasing health-enhancing hormones. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:12 AM
The stress hormone cortisol not only causes abdominal fat to accumulate, but it also enlarges individual fat cells, leading to what researchers call “diseased” fat. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:13 AM
Stress is linked to the six leading causes of death: heart disease, cancer, lung ailments, accidents, liver cirrhosis, and suicide. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:14 AM
The stress of caring for a disabled spouse increases the risk of stroke substantially. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:14 AM
Chronic stress can impair the developmental growth in children by lowering the production of growth hormone from the pituitary gland. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:15 AM
A 2009 CNN poll reveals that the number one reason for stress in most countries is money. The countries most stressed about money are Malaysia, China, Singapore, and the United States. The countries least stressed about money are Russia, France, and Italy.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:16 AM
The term “stress” derives from the Latin stringere (to draw tight). .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:32 AM
Stress causes capillaries to close, which restricts bleeding if a flesh wound should occur. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:33 AM
Pupils dilate (mydriasis) during stress much the same way they dilate in response to attraction: to gather more visual information about a situation. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:34 AM
Chronic stress floods the brain with powerful hormones that are meant for short-term emergency situations. Chronic exposure can damage, shrink, and kill brain cells.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:34 AM
A 2003 study found that women with moderate levels of stress were at lower risk for suicide than those women who had very high or very low levels of stress. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:35 AM
Scientists suggest that stress is part of the evolutionary drive because it has enabled humans to survive. Specifically, stress temporarily increases awareness and improves physical performance.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:36 AM
Stress makes the blood “stickier,” in preparation for an injury. Such a reaction, however, also increases the probability of developing a blood clot. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:37 AM
Research has shown that dark chocolate reduces stress hormones such as cortisol and other fight-flight hormones. Additionally, cocoa is rich in antioxidants called flavonoids.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:37 AM
Chronic stress increases cytokines, which produce inflammation. Exposure to constant inflammation can damage arteries and other organs. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:38 AM
Stress can alter blood sugar levels, which can cause mood swings, fatigue, hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for heart attack and diabetes. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:39 AM
Chronic stress worsens irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a condition that irritates the large intestine and causes constipation, cramping, and bloating. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:39 AM
Peptic ulcers are caused by the H.pylori bacteria or the use of NSAIDS—not stress. However, stress can exacerbate ulcers and keep them from healing. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:40 AM
Chronic stress decreases the body’s immune system’s response to infection and can affect a person’s response to immunizations. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:41 AM
Studies show that HIV-infected men are more likely to progress to AIDS if they are under high stress than those with lower levels of stress. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:42 AM
Stress can increase the ability of chemicals to pass the blood-brain barrier, which shields neurons from some poisons, viruses, toxins, and other fluctuations in normal blood chemistry.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:42 AM
Acoustic stress (caused by loud noises) can trigger an episode of Long QT Syndrome (LQTS), a disorder of the heart’s electrical system. LGTS is estimated to cause as many as 3,000 deaths in the U.S. each year.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:43 AM
Young people from military families who have a deployed parent report higher levels of stress and emotional problems than other adolescents and teens. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:43 AM
Stress increases the risk of pre-term labor and intrauterine infection. Additionally, chronic levels of stress place a fetus at greater risk for developing stress-related disorders and affect the fetus’s temperament and neurobehavioral development.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:44 AM
Post-traumatic stress physically changes children’s brains; specifically, stress shrinks the hippocampus, a part of the brain that stores and retrieves memories. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:45 AM
Chinese stress balls (Baoding balls) were created during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) in Baoding, China. Originally made of iron, the balls are thought to relieve stress because they touch pressure or acupuncture points on the hand.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:46 AM
Stress can result in more headaches as a result of the body rerouting blood flow to other parts of the body. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:47 AM
The hyper-arousal of the body’s stress response system can lead to chronic insomnia. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:47 AM
An early record of post-traumatic stress syndrome dates from the eighth century B.C. in Homer’s Iliad when Achilles suffers severe battle stress in the Trojan War. Achilles complains of feeling emotionally “numb” or “dead” and expresses suicidal thoughts and rage.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:48 AM
In Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Lady Percy’s description of her battle-worn husband, Harry Hotspur, is surprisingly similar to the symptoms of actual post-traumatic syndrome, such as feeling estranged from others, difficulty sleeping, exhibiting an exaggerated startle, dysphoria, and strong anxiety.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:49 AM
When cells shrink due to exposure to stress hormones, they disconnect from each other, which contributes to depression. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:49 AM
Men are more likely than women to develop certain stress-related disorders, including hypertension, aggressive behavior, and abuse of alcohol and drugs. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:50 AM
Chronic low-level noise and low-frequency noise below the threshold of human hearing provoke stress hormones that can interfere with learning and can also elevate blood pressure, degrade the immune system, and increase aggression. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:51 AM
Stress creates hormonal changes in the human body that can decrease libido and sex response. However, the BBC reports that penetrative sex (as opposed to other types of sex, such as masturbation) decreased stress hormones while those who had no sex had the highest blood pressure.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:51 AM
Extreme or sudden emotional trauma can lead to “broken heart syndrome”(BHS), or stress cardiomyopathy (severe heart muscle weakness). This condition occurs rapidly, and usually in women. In Japan, BHS is called “octopus trap cardiomyopathy” because the left ventricle balloons out in a peculiar shape.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:53 AM
The concept of race is a modern concept. In the ancient world, the Greeks, Romans, Jews, Christians, and Muslims did not have racial categories.Â* Rather people were divided according to religion, class, language, etc.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:53 AM
While humans differ genetically in some ways, such as blood type and skin pigmentation, most anthropologists and biologists believe categories of race are not biologically grounded because modern humans simply have not evolved into separate subspecies or races.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:54 AM
Most anthropologists and biologists view race as a political grouping with roots in slavery and colonialism. The number of races and who belongs in each race have shifted over time and nations—not because of responses to scientific advances in human biology, but rather in response to political purposes.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:55 AM
Aristotle’s famous division between Greek and Barbarian was not based on race, but on those who organized themselves into community city-states and those who did not. The ancient Romans categorized people not on biological race or skin color, but on differing legal structures upon which they organized their lives.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:56 AM
Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) tried to prove in the 19th century that select “races” were superior to others by measuring the cranial capacity (brain size) of different groups (“whites,” “American Indians,” “blacks”). He also argued that there were different origins and lineages for different races (polygenism), rather than a single creation (monogenism) as found in the Bible.i

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:57 AM
In the medieval era, Muslims and Christians divided humans based on the categories of “believer” and “nonbeliever,” not on biological race. Additionally, the Jews based the differences between “goyim” (non-Jew) and “Jew” on faith rather than on biological differences.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:57 AM
The 14th-century Islamic scholar Ibn Khaldun argued against the theory that physical characteristics reflected moral attributes. For example, he explained that dark skin developed because of the hot climate of Africa and not due to the curse of Ham.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:58 AM
Most genetic variety is not between races, but rather within races. For example, two random Italians are as likely to be as genetically different as an Italian and a Chinese. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 08:59 AM
The U.S. Census Bureau defines race as a social category recognized by the United States and does not attempt to define race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically. The Census Bureau recognizes five categories of race: White (people with origins in Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa,) Black or African American (Africa), American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. The census also includes an Hispanic ethnic category. It is an ethnic category rather than a race category because the Latino community includes many races, such as white, black, Native American, Asian, and mixed.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:00 AM
Scientists believe that geography and ultraviolet rays cause variation in skin color, not race. Scientists believe that even though darker-skinned natives of Alaska and Canada live in northern regions with long periods of darkness, they receive higher levels of UVR reflected from the surface of snow and ice during the summer. Additionally, their diet is rich in vitamin D (from eating seal and fish), which compensates for the reduced sunshine in the winter.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:00 AM
Scientists project that in 1,000 years, humans will still come in many different colors, though people in the city will have a more mixed skin color rather than strikingly dark or light skin.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:01 AM
Race and ethnicity are different entities. While both are social constructs, race is associated with the idea that there are innate biological differences and has largely been discredited. Ethnicity, on the other hand, is associated with culture, religion, language, etc.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:02 AM
Most people who identify themselves as African American in the United States have some European ancestors. Additionally, a large number of people who identify themselves as European American have some Native American or African ancestors.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:02 AM
In the early 20th century, some churches in the U.S. would hang a pinewood slab on the door with a comb hanging from a string. A person could enter only if his or her skin was lighter than the pinewood and if they could run the comb through their hair without it snagging.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:03 AM
French physician Francois Bernier was the first to use the word “race” as a category for scientifically classifying humans in a 1684 essay titled “A New Division of the Earth, According to the Different Species or Races of Men Who Inhabit It.”

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:04 AM
Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778), a Swedish botanist and physician, established the origin of the color scheme of races. Linnaeus divided Homo sapiens into four “natural” varieties: H. sapiens americanus, H. sapiens europeans, H. sapiens asiaticus, and H. sapiens afer, which were linked to the four known regions of the world: America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. He color coded the species red, white, yellow, and black, respectively, and assigned each a set of physical, personality, cultural, and social traits. He considered H. sapiens europeaus the ideal.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:05 AM
Â*Johan Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840), a medical professor in Germany, argued that human beings fall into five races: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. He argued that Caucasians, who derived from the Caucasus Mountain region, embodied the ideal human from which the others “degenerated.” It was a popular belief that Caucasians were the ideal form based on a skull that had been found in the Caucasus Mountains, near the supposed location of Noah’s ark.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:07 AM
Â*Johan Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840), a medical professor in Germany, argued that human beings fall into five races: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. He argued that Caucasians, who derived from the Caucasus Mountain region, embodied the ideal human from which the others “degenerated.” It was a popular belief that Caucasians were the ideal form based on a skull that had been found in the Caucasus Mountains, near the supposed location of Noah’s ark.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:08 AM
Since the very first U.S. census in 1790, every U.S. census has sorted people by race. Since then, racial groupings have changed 24 times. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:08 AM
According to the 2010 American census, white and Asian children had the lowest rates of poverty of any ethnic group. Blacks had the highest level of children living in poverty at 38.2%, children who were identified with two or more races were reported at 22.7%, and Hispanic children were reported at 32.3%.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:09 AM
The gene that causes light skin color in Europeans is different from the gene that causes light skin color in East Asians, indicating that they evolved light skin separately. The allele associated with the light skin found in Europe originated fairly recently, approximately 6,000-10,000 years ago.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:11 AM
The Human Genome Project, which mapped out the complete human genetic code, proved that race could not be identified in our genes. While scientists may use the idea of race to make practical distinctions among fluid sets of genetic traits, all people belong to the same hominid species, Homo sapiens sapiens (Latin for “wise man” or “knowing man”). In other words, biologically, there is one human race.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:13 AM
Some scholars believe the earliest use of the word “race” in the English language was in the 1508 poem by William Dunbar, a Scottish member of King James IV’s court who wrote the poem “The Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins.” One of the verses described those who were “bakbyttaris of sindry races” or “backbiters of sundry races.” Dunbar most likely borrowed the term from the Spanish raza, which applied to breeds of horses and dogs.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:14 AM
Traditionally the U.S. has followed the concept of hypodescent, or the rule that a child of a mixed race union is classified in the less privileged group. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:15 AM
Before the African slave trade boom in the 18th century, between one-half and two-thirds of all early white immigrants to the American colonies were non-free laborers. Initially, European settlers in the colonies gave blacks from Africa and Native Americans the same status as white indentured servants. By the 1700s, however, Africans and their children were treated as a different race and were viewed as life-long properties of their masters.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:16 AM
In 1662, Virginia outlawed interracial sex when the legislature amended its prohibition of all fornication to impose heavier penalties if the guilty parties were “negroes” and “Christians.” In 1691, Virginia made it illegal for a “negro,” mulatto, or “Indian” man to marry or “accompany” a white woman. Laws prohibiting mixed marriage in Virginia were in effect until 1967. South Carolina did not overturn its ban on interracial marriage until 1998, and even then 38% of voters opposed the referendum.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:17 AM
In the early 1800s, blacks hoping to move to Ohio had to post a $500 bond guaranteeing their good behavior, and they were required to produce court documents proving they were free.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:18 AM
Different nations assign race in different ways. In Japan and the U.S., race is fixed and assigned at birth. However, in Brazil, race is more fluid and is determined by a number of factors such as a person’s parents, a person’s phenotype, and a person’s socioeconomic status. In places like Brazil, a person’s race can change as they become wealthier or poorer.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:20 AM
Between 1878 and 1952, state and federal judges issued 52 racial perquisite cases for citizenship in the U.S. In these cases, judges ruled that Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, Hawaiians, Afghanis, Native Americans, and anyone of mixed ancestries were not white. On the other hand, Arabs, Syrians, and Asian Indians were generally considered white.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:26 AM
In the 1800s, Irish immigrants to the U.S. were considered to be closer to Africans than to the English. Italian newcomers were called Guineas, an epithet reserved for African Americans.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:27 AM
Â*African Americans/Blacks made up half of all new HIV diagnoses and slightly under half of all new AIDS diagnoses in 2009. In 2008, of all the people living with an HIV diagnosis in 40 U.S. states and 5 independent areas, 46% were African American/black, 31.6% were white, 20% were Hispanic/Latino, 1.3% were multiple races, 0.6% were Asian, 0.4% were American Indian/Alaska Native, and 0.04% were Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:28 AM
The term “Arab” is not a racial term but rather a cultural and linguistic term. It refers to those who speak Arabic as their first language. Arabs share a culture and history, but “Arabs” are not a race.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:30 AM
According to a White House spokesperson, President Obama checked only the box for black/African American when he filled out the 2010 census. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:31 AM
When darker Egyptian rulers were in power in ancient Egypt, they called the lighter-skinned group “the pale degraded race of Arvad.” However, when lighter-skinned Egyptians were in power, they labeled the darker people “the evil race of Ish.”

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:32 AM
A Harvard professor wrote four adamant letters in 1863 to Lincoln’s Civil War Commission asserting that incorporating blacks as equals in the reunited nation would contaminate the white race, both socially and biologically.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:33 AM
At the end of the 19th century, American anthropologists used Darwin’s notion of survival of the fittest to justify the killing of American Indians and forced regression of blacks to servant class. In light of the survival of the fittest theory, it was also popular to believe that the “defective” bodies and minds of “savage races” would gradually lead to their own extinction.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:34 AM
In the early 1900s, eugenists attempted to use IQ tests to prove that certain races were inherently more intelligent than other races. For example, they used tests to try to demonstrate that blacks and recent immigrants from southern and eastern Europe were intellectually inferior to Americans of Anglo Saxon or Scandinavian descent. By the 1940s, eugenics had been discredited both as bad science and as an excuse for racial hatred.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:35 AM
Thomas Jefferson was not only a political philosopher but also a naturalist. In one of his notes, he argued that black people were predisposed to sleeping more because their minds were empty: “An animal whose body is at rest and who does not reflect must be disposed to sleep, of course.”

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:36 AM
The infamous “Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male” launched by the U.S. Public Health Service in Macon County, Alabama, in 1932 was created to confirm the long held view that venereal diseases acted differently in blacks than in whites. The study is widely considered unethical, mainly because researchers knowingly did not treat patients with syphilis, even after penicillin was discovered to be an effective treatment. The study lasted 40 years, until 1972.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:37 AM
The Institute of Medicine in 2002 scientifically documented widespread racial disparities in health care and suggested they stemmed at least partly from physician bias. In one generation, between 1940 and 1999, more than 4 million African Americans died prematurely relative to whites.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:38 AM
After pornography, ancestry websites are the most commonly visited on the Internet. A molecular biologist from John Hopkins asserts that each one of us has around 6.7 billion relatives.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:40 AM
Interracial marriage has been legal in the U.S. since 1967. In 2008, a record 14.6% of all first marriages in the U.S. were interracial marriages. Nine percent of whites, 16% of blacks, 26% of Hispanics, and 31% of Asians married someone whose race or ethnicity was different from their own. White men/Asian women pairings are the most common form of interracial dating and marriage in the U.S.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:41 AM
A daughter born to an Irish mother and American Indian father in Maryland in 1680 was labeled a “mulatto” and sold into slavery. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:42 AM
Statistics show that white wife/black husband marriages are twice as likely to end in divorce than white wife/white husband couples by the 10th year of marriage. However, a black wife/white husband marriage is 44% less likely to divorce than a white wife/white husband couple by the 10th year of marriage.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:43 AM
In 2007, economists Joseph Price and Justin Wolfers argued that their research showed that National Basketball Association referees are more likely to call fouls on players of a different race than themselves.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:44 AM
Research indicates that infants as young as six months old notice racial differences.g
According to federal statistics, one in four students reports being a target of ethnic or racial bias in a typical school year. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:45 AM
In California, 40% of African American men between 18-25 are either in jail, on parole, or on probation. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:46 AM
Sociologists Simon Cheng and Brian Powell found that parents in biracial families typically devote more time and money to enrolling their kids in activities, such as music lessons and museum trips—not necessarily because they have more money, but most likely to compensate for their marginalized social status.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:47 AM
California was the first state to ban the use of race and ethnicity in public university admissions. However, now that affirmative action is banned (Proposition 209), Asian American students have dominated admissions. At UC Berkeley, for example, 46% of those admitted into the 2012 freshman class are Asian; 30% are white.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:49 AM
Research shows that half of all children are bullied at some time during their school years. More than 10% are bullied regularly. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:50 AM
More parents are allowing their young children to undergo plastic surgery to combat bullying. For example, Samantha Shaw, a 1st grader, underwent surgery to get her ears pinned back to prevent her from being bullied.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:51 AM
The word “bully” was first used in 1530 and originally applied to both genders and meant “sweetheart.” It is from the Dutch boel, meaning “lover” or “brother.” Around the seventeenth century, the term began to mean “fine fellow,” “blusterer,” and then “harasser of the weak.”

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:52 AM
Over 30% of children who suffer a food allergy report having been bullied at school. While verbal abuse was the most common form of bullying, 40% reported having been physically threatened, such as having the allergen thrown or waved at them or being touched by the allergen. Food allergies affect an estimated three million children.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:52 AM
Girls bully in groups more than boys do. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:53 AM
Though girls tend to use more indirect, emotional forms of bullying, research indicates that girls are becoming more physical than they have in the past. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:54 AM
Boys tend to bully according to group, such as “athlete” versus “non-athlete.” Girls tend to bully according to social status, such as “popular” vs. “non-popular.” .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:54 AM
When boys bully, they tend to use more threats and physical intimidation on both boys and girls. Girls are usually more verbal and tend to target other girls. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:55 AM
Bullying happens not just in the United States but also all over the world. International researchers have demonstrated that bullying in schools is universal. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 09:57 AM
Several factors increase the risk of a child being bullied, including parental over-control, illness or disability, passivity, social phobia, agoraphobia, and higher levels and expression of general anxiety

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:06 AM
Researchers have found that bullying roles (those who bully and their victims) remain fairly stable throughout school. For example, even after switching to a new classroom, victims of bullying continued to be victims. However, by the age of 23, the roles become less stable and victims of bullies are not as harassed or socially isolated.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:07 AM
Research by Fight Crime/Invest in Kids reports that 60% of boys who bullied from first grade through ninth grade were convicted of at least one crime by age 24 and 40% had three or more convictions by age 24.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:08 AM
The average bullying episode lasts only 37 seconds. Teachers notice or intervene in only one in 25 incidents. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:12 AM
“Bully-victims” are students who can be both a bully and a victim. They often have been victimized and then begin inflicting the same behavior on others. Those who are both bully and victim are at a higher risk than either bullies or victims for depression, high-conflict relationships, substance abuse, hyperactive behavior, and school truancy.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:12 AM
Children who have a learning disability or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are more likely than other children to be bullied. They also are slightly more likely than others to bully.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:14 AM
Researchers note that if a victim fights a bully and the bully wins, this loss will only make matters worse for the victim. Consequently, researchers argue that fighting back should not be encouraged. Instead, the child should be encouraged to walk away and tell an adult if he feels someone is about to hurt him

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:14 AM
Those who felt bullied in 6th grade were more likely to report feelings of loneliness six years later. Those who bullied in 6th grade felt more overtly aggressive in 12th grade.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:15 AM
Children with medical conditions that affect their appearance, such as spinal bifida and cerebral palsy, are more likely to be bullied. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:16 AM
Children who are obese are more likely to be bullied. Additionally, overweight and obese girls are more likely to be physically bullied. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:17 AM
Diabetic children who are dependent on insulin may be more prone to peer bullying. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:29 AM
Over 83% of adults who stuttered as children said they had been teased or bullied. Approximately 71% said that bullying happened at least once a week. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:32 AM
According to disability, harassment, civil, and criminal laws, bullying can easily become a crime. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:33 AM
If a school district does not take reasonable and appropriate steps to stop a child from being bullied, the district may be violating federal, state, and local laws. For more information, parents can contact the U.S. Department of Education Office or the U.S. Department of Education Office of Special Education Programs.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:34 AM
Teens who are gay are often subjected to such intense bullying that they do not receive an adequate education. They’re often embarrassed or ashamed to report the abuse.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:34 AM
Gay teens are three times more likely than heterosexual teens to report having been bullied. In contrast, gay teens were about 80% less likely than heterosexuals to say they had bullied someone else.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:35 AM
Megan Meier hanged herself three weeks before her 14th birthday in 2006 after receiving cruel messages on MySpace. A mother of one of her friends had created a false MySpace account to send Megan harassing emails. The bullying mother was indicted on the incident but was acquitted.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:36 AM
Bullies are more likely to engage in vandalism, shoplifting, truancy, and substance abuse than students who do not bully during early childhood. There is also a direct correlation between substance abuse and gun violence and bullying behavior.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:37 AM
Overly aggressive and overly permissive parents are equally likely to have children who bully. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:37 AM
Research clearly indicates that children as young as age 5 who continually observe bullying that goes unchecked or ignored by adults are at greater risk of becoming bullies themselves.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:38 AM
Boys are least likely to report bullying. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:39 AM
There is a connection between bullying and being exposed to violence. Unfortunately, by the time an average child enters kindergarten, he will have witnessed 8,000 murders on television. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:40 AM
Some cyberbullies think that if they use a fake name, they won’t get caught. But there are many ways to track such bullies. Additionally, the things that bullies post online can affect college applications and getting a job in the future.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:41 AM
The number of adolescents who experience cyberbullying varies from 10%-40% or more, depending on the age of the group and how cyberbullying is technically defined. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:42 AM
Cyberbullying can be very different from bullying. First, victims often do not know who is bullying them or why, because the cyberbullies can hide their identity with anonymous emails or screen names. Second, cyberbullying can go viral, which means a larger number of people are aware of the bullying via the Internet. Third, it is easier to be cruel using technology because the bullies do not have to see the immediate response of their victims. Finally, many parents and teachers are not technologically savvy enough to be aware of what is going on online.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:43 AM
Only 1 in 10 victims of cyberbullying tell a parent. Fewer than 1 in 5 cyberbullying incidents are reported to the police. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:43 AM
There are typically three types of bullying: social (excluding victims from activities, rumors), verbal (threatening, taunting, teasing, hate speech), and physical (kicking, hitting, punching, choking).

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 10:44 AM
Bullying can occur anywhere there is a perceived or real imbalance of power, ranging from in the home to an international level. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:33 AM
The two students involved in the 1999 Columbine massacre were described as gifted students who had been bullied for years. During the school shooting, the boys killed 13 people, injured 24, and then killed themselves.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:34 AM
Jingoism, or extreme patriotism, often leads to international bullying. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:34 AM
Researchers note that bullying escalates in the later years of elementary school, peaks in middle school, and then dissipates by high school. They also note that 6th grade is the worst year for bullying.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:35 AM
Academically gifted students, especially those with high verbal aptitude, are often bullied and are more likely than less gifted students to suffer emotionally. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:36 AM
In 2007, the five worst states for bullying in kindergarten through 12th grade were (1) California, (2) New York, (3) Illinois, (4) Pennsylvania, and (5) Washington. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:37 AM
Every day, 160,000 students skip school because they are afraid they will be bullied. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:37 AM
Thirty percent of students who say they have been bullied said they sometimes had brought weapons to school. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:38 AM
While teachers say they intervened 71% of the time in bullying incidents, students report that teachers intervened only 25% of the time. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:39 AM
Of the 37 school shootings reviewed by the U.S. Secret Service, bullying was involved in 2/3 of the cases. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:40 AM
Students see an estimated four out of every five bullying occurrences at school and join in about 3/4 of the time. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:40 AM
It is a myth that bullying will most likely go away when it is ignored. Ignoring bullies reinforces to them that they can bully without consequence. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:41 AM
It is likely that if someone was bullied in school, they will also be bullied in the workforce & probably in SCE. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:42 AM
Celebrities who report being bullied in high school include Lady Gaga (who was thrown in a garbage can), Rosario Dawson (for being flat chested), Fred Durst (known as an underdog), Kate Winslet (for being chubby), and Michael Phelps (for his gangly form and big ears).

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:45 AM
A 2007 poll found that 1/3 of workers, or 54 million Americans, reported workplace bullying.o .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:45 AM
An estimated 40%-75% of bullying in schools takes place during breaks, such as during recess, at lunchtime, in the hallways, or in the restrooms. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:46 AM
According to a 2004 survey of 4th through 8th grade students, 53% of children reported that they used the Internet to say something negative about another child. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:57 AM
The term “abortion” is from the Latin abortus (ab- “amiss” + oriri-Â*“appear to be born, arise”). .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 11:57 AM
The Egyptian Kahun Papyrus (1850 B.C.) suggests crocodile feces either for preventing conception or as an abortifacient. In Arabic medicine, elephant feces were frequently recommended. The Ebers Papyrus (1550 B.C.) contains several recipes that “cause a woman to stop pregnancy in the first, second, or third period.” One recipe for a vaginal suppository includes combining the unripe fruit of Acacia, colocynth, dates, and 6/7 pints of honey and pouring the mixture onto a moistened plant fiber.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:01 PM
Modern Arabic women still take colocynth as an abortifacient, though one woman who took 120 grains in a powder died 50 hours later. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:01 PM
While there has never been complete agreement about when a fetus becomes a person, the major sentiment in ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Roman thought was that there could be no living soul in an “unformed” and/or “unquickened” body and, hence, the law of homicide could not apply if a fetus was aborted before that time. However, other scholars, such as Basil, the bishop of Caesarea in Asia Minor (c. A.D. 330-379), called feticide murder at any point of development.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:02 PM
Aristotle suggests that the conceptus had a “soul” after 40 days from conception if a male and 90 if female (for a similar differentiation, see Leviticus 12:1-5 in the Bible). Later, Aristotle says that the fetus develops “little by little” and that one cannot make fine judgments.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:04 PM
The Stoics thought the soul came when the fetus was exposed to cool air, although the potential was present at conception. Plutarch and Tertullian both ridiculed that idea because babies born in hot climates or in warm rooms were certainly alive.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:06 PM
Ancient Hebrew religious law regarded a woman pregnant at 40 days after conception and, therefore, abortion before that could not be considered criminal. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:06 PM
There was an endless list of oral drugs to abort a fetus from before the time of Hippocrates (460 B.C.) and into the Middle Ages. A few examples include clover mixed with white wine, Edderwort mixed with vinegar and water, mountain rue, birthwort mixed with pepper and mint, white hellebore, shepherd’s purse, squirting cucumber, stinking iris, pomegranate, and even a poisonous fish the color of a hare

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:07 PM
Ancient physicians also used pessaries, or vaginal suppositories, as abortifacients. They were usually more potent than oral drugs and included substances like the juice of the wild fig, a “milky liquid” which caused irritation, soap-wort, myrrh, myrtle, lupine, cedar-oil mixed with water, wine, or hot oil. Physicians also recommend smearing on the uterine opening goose fat, mashed leek and celery, rose oils, pine resin, copper scum, boiled honey, sodium carbonate, and even mouse dung.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:08 PM
Ancient abortion methods included applying substances externally on the abdomen such as various ointments and creams, bruised corn boiled with vinegar, and boiled cypress leaves. Physicians, such as Galen, also recommended hot baths, blood letting, strenuous physical exercise, leaping, riding in a shaky carriage, carrying heavy weights, emotional shock, body massages with hot oil, or being vigorously shaken by two strong men.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:09 PM
Surgical abortion was well known in the ancient world though, due to lack of anesthetics and antibiotics, it was dangerous and painful. Celsus (c. 25 B.C.-A.D. 50) provides the most complete account of a dilatation and curettage (D&C) operation, which required placing one, sometimes two hands, into the uterus to straighten the fetus and then extracting the fetus with a hook. Ancient texts such as Diseases of Women, Superfetation, and On the excision of the foetus refer to a surgical tool called an embruosphaktes (“embryo-slayer”).

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:09 PM
Ancient physicians clearly understood that abortifacients could damage the uterus, cause septic abortions, and generally endanger to the mother’s health. Ovid compares the dangers and wounds from war for men with the dangers from abortion for women.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:10 PM
Hippocrates alludes to abortion in his Hippocratic Oath. Some translators argue Hippocrates said he would not administer a woman “a pessary to produce an abortion.” Other interpretations suggest that Hippocrates actually said he would not “give a woman an abortive remedy.” In the landmark Roe v. Wade decision that legalized abortion, the United States Supreme Court in 1973 dismissed the oath Â*as an incorrect application of a historical precedent.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:11 PM
Physicians such as Pliny the Elder (A.D. 23-79), Dioscorides (c. 40-90), and Pseudo-Galen (129-216) mention more “superstitious” abortifacients, such as crossing over the root of a cyclamen, the egg of a crow, a viper, or a stone bitten by a dog. Additionally, if a woman crosses the menstrual blood of another woman, she will have an abortion.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:11 PM
During the Middle Ages, abortion was tolerated because there were no laws against it. There were a variety of abortifacients, such as mixture known as a “cup of roots” and another called “A Cure for All Kinds of Stomach Aches.” A medieval female physician, Dame Trotula of Salerno, may have been the first woman gynecologist and administered a number of remedies for the “retention of menstrua,” which was sometimes a code for early abortifacients.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:12 PM
In Arabic society, the evidence of continuous uses of early abortifacients is abundant. When classical texts were reintroduced into the West via Arabic influence around the thirteenth century, Westerners had the knowledge of ancient Greek and Roman medicine as well as the superior knowledge regarding contraception and abortifacients from the Arabs.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:13 PM
During the Renaissance, abortion was still tolerated, though Renaissance scholars knew less about birth control and abortifacients than did their medieval, Islamic, and classical forerunners. Perhaps this is due to the move of medicine from apprenticeship to male- and theory-centered universities, the growing gap between physicians and midwives, and the desire for larger families.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:14 PM
The relative indifference of common law courts to a fetus changed in the 1600s in England when abortion after a fetus had “quickened” became manslaughter. However, any action before “quickening” that harmed the pregnancy was not considered criminal under common law in England and the United States.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:15 PM
Reports of attempted abortions by ingesting savin (oil from juniper bushes) were common in the early nineteenth century, as well as accidental deaths from savin overdose. Savin was the single most commonly employed abortifacient in the United States during this time.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:16 PM
Women in the first decades of of the nineteenth century consulted texts such William Buchan’s Domestic Medicine and Samuel K. Jennings The Married Lady’s Companion, which suggested releasing “obstructed menses” by bloodletting, bathing, iron and quinine concoctions, and black hellebore. Later in pregnancy, a woman could engage in “violent exercise, raising great weights, reaching too high, jumping, hitting the belly, and falls."

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:16 PM
Common abortive techniques such as “bleeding” might have served as a surrogate period. It was believed that bleeding from the any part of the body would have the same flushing effect on the womb that menstrual bleeding was known to have.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:17 PM
Joseph Brevitt’s The Female Medical Repository (1810) suggests “electricity” would “restore discharge,” an idea that would be picked up by later nineteenth century entrepreneurs who developed several contraptions designed to help “obstructed” women.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:17 PM
Thomas Ewell in his Letter to Ladies (1817) also suggests electricity around the thighs and included medically advanced procedures, such as internal douching with strong brandy, hot water, vinegar, wine, or strong brine--methods that were actually fairly antiseptic.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:19 PM
The phrase “taking the cold” was a common nineteenth-century euphemism for missing a menstrual period. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:19 PM
In 1820, the status of the fetus began to find its way into state statues, and between 1821 and 1841, both legislators and physicians sought to control medical practice and create stricter poison control laws. The first state to prohibit abortion was Connecticut in 1821.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:20 PM
Despite initial legislation, abortion rates in the U.S. increased from one abortion for every 30 births during the first three decades of the nineteenth century to one abortion for every five or six live births by the 1850s and 1860s, perhaps due to increased advertisement and commercialization.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:20 PM
Perhaps the most flamboyant and publicized abortionist during the nineteenth century was Madame Restell, whose real name was Ann Lohman. Though she was arrested several times, she had successful branch agencies in Boston and Philadelphia. Salesmen would sell her abortifacient pills and refer patients to her clinic.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:21 PM
It was common as late as 1870 for abortionists to pull an expectant woman’s tooth because the pain and shock of an extraction without anesthetic was thought to be an abortificiant. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:22 PM
In 1857, Boston physician Horatio Robinson Storer Â*(often considered the “Father of American Gynecology”) successfully persuaded the American Medical Association to petition state legislators for stronger regulations of Â*America’s ambiguous and permissive policies toward abortion.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:23 PM
By the 1900s, all states and the District of Columbia had enacted criminal abortion statues. Yet, during the century that abortion was a crime (1867-1973), millions of abortions were performed. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:26 PM
Early feminists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) and Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) denounced abortion on the grounds that it was a male tool for sexually exploiting women and avoiding the responsibly of supporting a family.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:27 PM
In 1902, the Journal of the American Medical Association endorsed a policy to deny a woman seeking medical treatment for complications arising from illegal abortions until she “confessed.”

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:27 PM
During the Depression, when women might lose a job if they became pregnant, abortion rates particularly increased. B .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:28 PM
In the 1940s and 1950s, enforcement of abortion laws became more organized and systematic, though one million abortions a year were being performed, with nearly 5,000 women per year dying from illegal abortions.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:29 PM
In the 1973 Roe v. Wade case, the United States Supreme Court declared most states’ abortion laws illegal, and that women, in consultation with their physicians, have a constitutional right to abortion before viability without interference from the government.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:30 PM
Norma McCorvey is the “Jane Roe” in the Roe vs. Wade case. She has since become pro-life and is the founder of “Roe No More,” an organization that provides counseling for women seeking an abortion.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:31 PM
In 2003, there were approximately 42 million abortions per year worldwide, or 115,000 daily. This was a drop from 46 million in 1995. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:31 PM
In 2005, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States. In 2000, there were 1.31 million. From 1973-2005, more than 45 million abortions in the United States occurred. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:32 PM
Currently, 35 states enforce parental consent or notification laws for minors seeking an abortion. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:33 PM
About 37% of all abortions occur to African American women, 34 % to non-Hispanic Caucasian women, 22% to Hispanic women, and 8% to other races (The small overlap between racial categories create a total of 101%). Approximately 50% of women who obtain an abortion are younger than 25. Women who have never married obtain two-thirds of all abortions. Younger women are more likely to request an abortion after 12 weeks.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:34 PM
Legal abortion may be performed using medical or surgical abortion methods. Medical abortions that include the drug mifepristone (RU-486) or methotrexate in early pregnancy offer more privacy and can pose less risk than surgical abortions. RU-486 (RU stands for stands for Roussel Uclaf, France, where the pill was developed) was approved in the U.S. in 2000.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:35 PM
Intact dilation and extraction (IDX), or partial-birth abortion, has been federally banned in the United States. .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:35 PM
Currently, Belgium (11.2 per 100) and Netherlands (10.6 per 100) have the lowest rates of abortion, while Russia (62.6 per 100) and Vietnam (43.7 per 100) have the highest rates.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:36 PM
Nazi Germany prohibited women considered “good stock” from obtaining abortions while permitting abortions for those who were “hereditarily ill.” .

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:37 PM
Advances in sonography and amniocentesis allow parents to determine the sex before birth, which seems to be leading to an increase of sex-selective abortions in some countries.

chinoxmk22
08-29-2012, 12:37 PM
Fetal pain is extremely difficult to determine in early months of pregnancy because pain involves complex sensory, emotional, and cognitive factors. Many scholars suggest a fetus can feel pain around 28 weeks' gestation because that is when the fetus develops critical neural connections that assist in pain perception in the brain.